Improving non-invasive detection of prostate cancer using diffusion-weighted MRI

Michelle Leech, John Gaffney, Laure Marignol

Abstract


Prostate cancer represents 11% of all cancers in the European Union and 9% of all cancer deaths. Standard MRI for prostate cancer includes high-resolution T2-weighted images, which allow for the assessment of the prostate and the tumour, as tumours arising from the peripheral zone appear dark compared to the expected normally bright peripheral gland tissue. Over the past number of years, the application of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) has progressed to include both diagnostic and prognostic roles in oncology. DW-MRI images should be analysed together with the T2-weighted images and the corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. We searched PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct for relevant journal articles and reviews published up until April 2015 using the search terms “functional MRI” OR “multiparametric MRI” OR “MRSI” AND “diagnosis” AND “prostate cancer” OR “prostate”. The literature indicates that DW-MRI is an important parameter in the identification of prostate cancer. It has the ability to improve sensitivity and specificity, relative to T2-weighted images alone, and has been demonstrated to correlate with tumour grade.

Keywords


Prostate cancer detection; diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

Full Text:

PDF

References


Primic-Zakelj M. Cancer Epidemiology. In: Schijvers D, Senn HJ, Mellstedt H, Zatkotnik B (editors). ESMO handbook of cancer prevention. London: Informa Healthcare; 2008. p. 3–8.

Barentsz JO, Richenberg J, Clements R, Choyke P, Verma S, et al. ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012. Eur Radiol 2012; 22: 746–757. doi: 10.1007/s00330-011-2377-y.

Keetch D, Catalona W. Prostatic transition zone biopsies in men with previous negative biopsies and persistently elevated serum prostate specific antigen values. Journal of Urology 1995; 154(5):1795-1797. doi: 10.1097/ 00005392-199511000-00057.

Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratliff TL, Dodds KM, Coplen DE, et al. Measurement of prostate-specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 1991; 324(17): 1156–1161. doi: 10.1056/ NEJM199104253241702.

Catalona WJ, Smith DS. Comparison of different serum prostate specific antigen measures for early prostate cancer detection. Cancer 1994; 74(5): 1516–1518. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19940901)74:5<1516::AID-CNCR28 20740503>3.0.CO;2-#.

Schröder FH, Hugosson J, Roobol MJ, Tammela TLJ, Ciatto S, et al. Screening and prostate-cancer mortality in a randomized European study. N Engl J Med 2009; 360(13): 1320–1328. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810084.

Heijmink SWTPJ, van Moerkerk H, Kiemeney LALM, Witjes JA, Frauscher F, et al. A comparison of the diagnostic performance of systematic versus ultrasound- guided biopsies of prostate cancer. Eur Radiol. 2006; 16(4): 927–938. doi: 10.1007/s00330-005-0035-y.

Jie C, Rongbo L, Ping T. The value of diffusion-weighted imaging in the detection of prostate cancer: A meta- analysis. Eur Radiol 2014; 24(8): 1929–1941. doi: 10.1007/s00330-014-3201-2.

Franiel T, Stephan C, Erbersdobler A, Dietz E, Maxeiner A, et al. Areas suspicious for prostate cancer: MR- guided biopsy in patients with at least one transrectal US-guided biopsy with a negative finding— Multiparametric MR imaging for detection and biopsy planning. Radiology 2011; 259(1): 162–172. doi: 10.1148/ radiol.10101251.

Panebianco V, Barchetti F, Sciarra A, Ciardi A, Indino EL, et al. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging vs. standard care in men being evaluated for prostate cancer: A randomised study. Urol Oncol-Semin Ori 2015; 33(1): e1–e7. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.09.013.

Le JD, Huang J, Marks LS. Targeted prostate biopsy: Value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in detection of localized cancer. Asian J Androl 2014; 16(4): 522–529. doi: 10.4103/1008-682X.122864.

Le Bihan D, Breton E, Lallemand D, Grenier P, Cabanis E, et al. MR imaging of intravoxel incoherent motions: Application to diffusion and perfusion in neurologic disorders. Radiology 1986; 161(2): 401–407. doi: 10.1148/ radiology.161.2.3763909.

Tamada T, Sone T, Jo Y, Yamamoto A, Ito K. Diffusion-weighted MRI and its role in prostate cancer. NMR Biomed 2013; 27(1): 25–38. doi: 10.1002/nbm.2956.

Koh DM, Collins D. Diffusion-weighted MRI in the body: Applications and challenges in oncology. Am J Roentgenol 2007; 188(6): 1622–1635. doi: 10.2214/AJR.06. 1403.

Bammer R. Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging. Eur J Radiol 2003; 45(3): 169–184. doi: 10.1016/ S0720-048X(02)00303-0.

Guo Y, Cai YQ, Cai ZL, Gao YG, An NY, et al. Differentiation of clinically benign and malignant breast lesions using diffusion-weighted imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 2002; 16(2): 172–178. doi: 10.1002/jmri.10140.

Gauvain KM, McKinstry RC, Mukherjee P, Perry A, Neil J, et al. Evaluating pediatric brain tumor cellularity with diffusion-tensor imaging. Am J Roentgenol 2001; 177(2): 449–454. doi: 10.2214/ajr.177.2.1770449.

Sugahara T, Korogi Y, Kochi M, Ikushima I, Shigematu Y, et al. Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MRI with echo-planar technique in the evaluation of cellularity in gliomas. J Magn Reson Imaging 1999; 9(1): 53–60. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1522-2586(199901)9:1<53::AID-JMRI7> 3.0.CO;2-2.

Lang P, Wendland MF, Saeed M, Gindele A, Rosenau W, et al. Osteogenic sarcoma: Noninvasive in vivo assessment of tumor necrosis with diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Radiology 1998; 206(1): 227–235. doi: 10.1148/ radiology.206.1.9423677.

Lee NK, Kim S, Kim GH, Uk D, Seo HI, et al. Diffusion-weighted imaging of biliopancreatic disorders: Correlation with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. World J Gastroentero 2012; 18(31): 4102–4117. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i31.4102.

Afaq A, Koh DM, Padhani A, van As N, Sohaib SA. Clinical utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in prostate cancer. BJU Int 2011; 108(11): 1716–1722. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10256.x.

Morgan VA, Kyriazi S, Ashley SE, de Souza NM. Evaluation of the potential of diffusion-weighted imaging in prostate cancer detection. Acta Radiol 2007; 48(6): 695–703. doi: 10.1080/02841850701349257.

Carlsson J, Helenius G, Karlsson MG, Andrén O, Klinga-Levan K, et al. Differences in microRNA expression during tumor development in the transition and peripheral zones of the prostate. BMC Cancer 2013; 13(1): 62. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-13-362.

McNeal JE, Redwine EA, Freiha FS, Stamey TA. Zonal distribution of prostatic adenocarcinoma: Correlation with histologic pattern and direction of spread. Am J Surg Pathol 1988; 12(12): 897–906. doi: 10.1097/00000478-198812000-00001.

Sato C, Naganawa S, Nakamura T, Kumada H, Miura S, et al. Differentiation of noncancerous tissue and cancer lesions by apparent diffusion coefficient values in transition and peripheral zones of the prostate. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005; 21(3): 258–262. doi: 10.1002/jmri.20251.

Yoshizako T, Wada A, Hayashi T, Uchida K, Sumura M, et al. Usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of prostate transition-zone cancer. Acta Radiol 2008; 49(10): 1207–1213. doi: 10.1080/ 02841850802508959.

Arsov C, Rabenalt R, Blondin D, Quentin M, Hiester A, et al. Prospective randomized trial comparing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided in-bore biopsy to MRI-ultrasound fusion and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in patients with prior negative biopsies. Eur Urol 2015; 68(4): 713–720. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo. 2015.06.008.

Schoots IG, Roobol MJ, Nieboer D, Bangma CH, Steyerberg EW, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging- targeted biopsy may enhance the diagnostic accuracy of significant prostate cancer detection compared to standard transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Urol 2015; 68(3): 438–450. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.11.037.

Willis SR, Ahmed HU, Moore CM, Donaldson I, Emberton M, et al. Multiparametric MRI followed by targeted prostate biopsy for men with suspected prostate cancer: A clinical decision analysis. BMJ Open 2014; 4(6): e004895. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004895.

Haider MA, Amoozadeh Y, Jhaveri KS. DW-MRI for disease characterization in the pelvis. In: Koh D, Thoeni H (editors). Diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2010. p. 143–154. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-78576-7_9.

Yoshimitsu K, Kiyoshima K, Irie H, Tajima T, Asayama Y, et al. Usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficient map in diagnosing prostate carcinoma: Correlation with stepwise histopathology. J Magn Reson Imaging 2008; 27(1): 132–139. doi: 10.1002/jmri.21181.

AbdelMaboud NM, Elsaid HH, Aboubeih EA. The role of diffusion-weighted MRI in evaluation of prostate cancer. Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med 2014; 45(1): 231–236. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrnm.2013.11.010.

Chan I, Wells WW III, Mulkern RV, Haker S, Zhang J, et al. Detection of prostate cancer by integration of line- scan diffusion, T2-mapping and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A multichannel statistical classifier. Med Phys 2003; 30(9): 2390–2398. doi: 10.1118/1. 1593633.

Zelhof B, Pickles M, Liney G, Gibbs P, Rodrigues G, et al. Correlation of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance data with cellularity in prostate cancer. BJU Int 2009; 103(7): 883–888. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08130.x.

Turkbey B, Merino MJ, Gallardo EC, Shah V, Aras O, et al. Comparison of endorectal coil and nonendorectal coil T2W and diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla for localizing prostate cancer: Correlation with whole-mount histopathology. J Magn Reson Imaging 2013; 39(6): 1443– 1448. doi: 10.1002/jmri.24317.

Ren J, Huan Y, Wang H, Ge Y, Chang Y, Yin H, Sun L. Seminal vesicle invasion in prostate cancer: prediction with combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 2009; 19(10): 2481–2486. doi: 10.1007/s00330-009-1428-0.

Ren J, Huan Y, Li F, Wang H, Ge Y, et al. Combined T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI for diagnosis of urinary bladder invasion in patients with prostate carcinoma. J Magn Reson Imaging 2009; 30(2): 351–356. doi: 10.1002/jmri.21727.

Mir N, Sohaib SA, Collins D, Koh DM. Fusion of high b-value diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR images improves identification of lymph nodes in the pelvis. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2010; 54(4): 358–364. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9485.2010.02182.x.

Eiber M, Beer AJ, Holzapfel K, Tauber R, Ganter C, et al. Preliminary results for characterization of pelvic lymph nodes in patients with prostate cancer by diffusion-weighted MR-imaging. Invest Radiol 2010; 45(1): 15–23. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e3181bbdc2f.

Petrillo A, Fusco R, Setola SV, Ronza FM, Granata V, et al. Multiparametric MRI for prostate cancer detection: Performance in patients with prostate-specific antigen values between 2.5 and 10 ng/mL. J Magn Reson Imaging 2014; 39(5): 1206–1212. doi: 10.1002/jmri.24269.

Hisatomi M, Asaumi J, Yanagi Y, Unetsubo T, Maki Y, et al. Diagnostic value of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in the salivary gland tumors. Oral Oncol 2007; 43(9): 940– 947. doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2006.11.009.

Nicholson B, Schaefer G, Theodorescu D. Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: Biology and therapeutic opportunities. Cancer Metastasis Rev 2001; 20(3–4): 297–319. doi: 10.1023/A:1015543713485.

Ocak I, Bernardo M, Metzger G, Barrett T, Pinto P, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of prostate cancer at 3 T: A study of pharmacokinetic parameters. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2007; 189(4): W192–W201. doi: 10.2214/AJR. 06.1329.

Rud E, Baco E, Lien D, Klotz D, Eggesbø H. Detection of radiorecurrent prostate cancer using diffusion- weighted imaging and targeted biopsies. Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202(3): W241–W246. doi: 10.2214/AJR. 12.10483.

De Visschere P, Lumen N, Ost P, Decaestecker K, Pattyn E, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging has limited added value over T2-weighted imaging and diffusion- weighted imaging when using PI-RADSv2 for diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer in patients with elevated PSA. Clin Radiol 2016. In Press. doi: 10.1016/ j.crad.2016.09.011.

Barentsz JO, Richenberg J, Clements R, Choyke P, Verma S, et al. ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012. Eur Radiol 2012; 22(4): 746–757. doi: 10.1007/s00330-011-2377-y.

Vargas HA, Hötker AM, Goldman DA, Moskotwitz CS, Gondo T, et al. Updated prostate imaging reporting and data system (PIRADS v2) recommendations for the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiparametric MRI: Critical evaluation using whole-mount pathology as standard of reference. Eur Radiol 2016; 26(6): 1606–1612. doi: 10.1007/s00330-015-4015-6.

Beyersdorff D, Taupitz M, Winkelmann B, Fischer T, Lenk S, et al. Patients with a history of elevated prostate-specific antigen levels and negative transrectal US–guided quadrant or sextant biopsy results: Value of MR imaging. Radiology 2002; 224(3): 701–706. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2243011553.

Mazaheri Y, Shukla-Dave A, Hricak H, Fine SW, Zhang J, et al. Prostate cancer: Identification with combined diffusion-weighted MR imaging and 3D 1 H MR spectroscopic imaging—Correlation with pathologic findings. Radiology 2008; 246(2): 480–488. doi: 10.1148/radiol. 2462070368.

Puech P, Potiron E, Lemaitre L, Leroy X, Haber GP, et al. Dynamic contrast-enhanced–magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of intraprostatic prostate cancer: Correlation with radical prostatectomy specimens. Urology 2009; 74(5): 1094–1099. doi: 10.1016/j.urology.2009. 04.102.

Delongchamps NB, Rouanne M, Flam T, Beuvon F, Liberatore M, et al. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for the detection and localization of prostate cancer: Combination of T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted imaging. BJU Int 2010; 107(9): 1411–1418. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X. 2010.09808.x.

Bouchelouche K, Turkbey B, Choyke P, Capala J. Imaging prostate cancer: An update on positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Urol Rep 2010; 11(3): 180–190. doi: 10.1007/s11934-010-0105-9.

Park BK, Park JW, Park SY, Kim CK, Lee HM, et al. Prospective evaluation of 3-T MRI performed before initial transrectal ultrasound–guided prostate biopsy in patients with high prostate-specific antigen and no previous biopsy. Am J Roentgenol 2011; 197(5): W876–W881. doi: 10.2214/AJR.11.6829.

Ikonen S, Kivisaari L, Vehmas T, Tervahartiala P, Salo JO, et al. Optimal timing of post-biopsy MR imaging of the prostate. Acta Radiologica 2001; 42(1): 70–73. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0455.2001.042001070.x.

Hricak H, Choyke PL, Eberhardt SC, Leibel SA, Scardino PT. Imaging prostate cancer: A multidisciplinary perspective. Radiology 2007; 243(1): 28–53. doi: 10.1148/ radiol.2431030580.

White S, Hricak H, Forstner R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB, et al. Prostate cancer: Effect of postbiopsy hemorrhage on interpretation of MR images. Radiology 1995; 195(2): 385–390. doi: 10.1148/radiology.195.2.7724756.

Qayyum A, Coakley FV, Lu Y, Olpin JD, Wu L, et al. Organ-confined prostate cancer: Effect of prior transrectal biopsy on endorectal MRI and MR spectroscopic imaging. Am J Roentgenol 2004; 183(4): 1079–1083. doi: 10.2214/ajr.183.4.1831079.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30564/amor.v2i6.91

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Michelle Leech, John Gaffney, Laure Marignol

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.