Achieving Sustainable Use and Management of Water Resources for Irrigation in Nigeria

Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria;Geo-Moses Consultancy Limited. Warri, Delta State,Nigeria)
Ezekiel Obinna Igwe (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria)
Christopher Ogwah (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki Ebonyi State Nigeria)
Ruth Oghenerukevwe Eyankware Ulakpa (Department of Environment Management and Pollution Control, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko, Delta State,Nigeria)

Article ID: 2505


Water resource is available in Nigeria to meet water demand for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. If well enhanced and protected from various source of pollution. However, less information is available on suitability of water resources for irrigation use in Nigeria. This article reviews literature of the past with regards to influence of geogenic and anthropogenic activities on water resource for irrigation purpose in Nigeria and also to explain the current state of suitability of water resource for irrigation studies in Nigeria and gaps in studies. It also summarizes future ways on water resource management and preventive measure for water resource pollution for irrigation use. Related articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. This paper tends to review previous article on water resource in Nigeria, and its suitability for irrigation. The primary aim of this paper is to produce a synoptic overview of the water resources in Nigeria and its suitability for irrigation use. From paper reviewed it was observed that 89 % of water resources was considered suitable for irrigation.


Geogenic; Anthropogenic; Irrigation indices; Suitability and Nigeria

Full Text:



[1] Belkhiri, L., Boudoukha, A., Mouni, L. A multivariate statistical analysis of groundwater chemistry data. Int J Environ Res, 2011, 5(2): 537-544

[2] Chen, K., Jiao, J. J., Huang, J., Huang, R.Multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in groundwater in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China. Environ Pollut, 2007, 147: 771-780

[3] Deepa, S., Venkateswaran, S. Appraisal of groundwater quality in upper Manimuktha sub basin, Vellar river, Tamil Nadu, India by using Water Quality Index (WQI) and multivariate statistical techniques. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2018.

[4] Ikenna, S. I. Chinenye, F. O., Chiamaka, M. N. (2019). Geochemical evaluation of carbonate aquifers in Ngbo and environs, Ebonyi State, southeastern, Nigeria. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2019.

[5] Rao, S. Spatial control of groundwater contamination, using principal component analysis. J Earth Syst Sci, 2014, 123(4): 715-728

[6] Eyankware, M.O., Ogwah, C., Okeke, G. C. Geochemical evaluation of groundwater origin using source rock deduction and hydrochemical facies at Umuoghara Mining Area, Lower Benue Trough, SE Nigeria. Intern. Res. Jour. of Earth Sci., 2018, 6(10): 1-11.

[7] Johnson et al. Geogenic contaminants. - Eawag News 65e, 2008.

[8] Smedley et al. Uranium Occurrence and Behaviour in British Groundwater. CR/06/050N. British Geol. Survey, 2006.

[9] Stalder et al. Occurrence of uranium in Swiss drinking water. Chemosphere, 2012, 86: 672-679.

[10] Panno, S. V., Hackley, K. C., Hwang, H. H., Greenberg, S. E., Krapac, I. G., Landsberger, S., O’Kelly, D. J. Characterization and Identification of Na-Cl Sources in Ground Water. - Ground Water, 2006, 44: 176-187.

[11] Champidi, P., Stamatis, G. Zagana, E. Groundwater Quality Assessment and Geogenic and Anthropogenic Estimation in Erasions Basin (E.Attica). European Water, 2011, 33: 11-27.

[12] Grützmacher, G. Kumar1, P.J.S. Rustler1, M. Hannappe, S. Sauer, U. Geogenic groundwater contamination -definition, occurrence and relevance for drinking water production. Zbl. Geol. Paläont. Teil I, Jg. Heft 1, 2013, 69-75.

[13] Shekhar, S. An approximate projection of availability of the fresh groundwater resources in the South West district of NCT Delhi, India: a case study. Hydrogeol J., 2006, 14: 1330-1338.

[14] Ahada, C. P., Suthar, S. Assessing groundwater hydrochemistry of Malwa Punjab India. Arab J Geosci., 2018, 11-17.

[15] Chidambaram S, Sarathidasan J, Srinivasamoorthy K, Thivya C, Thilagavathi R, Prasanna M V, Singaraja C, Nepolian, M. Assessment of hydrogeochemical status of groundwater in a coastal region of Southeast coast of India. Appl Water Sci.,2018: 8-27.

[16] Kumar, S., Sarkar, A., Ali, S., Shekhar, S. Groundwater System of National Capital Region Delhi, India.In: Mukherjee A. (eds) Groundwater of South Asia. Springer Hydrogeology. Springer, Singapore, 2018.

[17] İrfan, Y. Özge, Can A. G., Neslihan, K. Origin of salinization and pollution sources and geochemical processes in urban coastal aquifer (Kocaeli, NW Turkey). Environmental Earth Sciences, 2019, 78: 181.

[18] Sajil Kumar, P.J. Deciphering the groundwater-saline water interaction in a complex coastal aquifer in South India using statistical and hydrochemical mixing models. Earth Syst. Environ, 2016, 2: 194

[19] Sivakarun N, Udayaganeshan P, Chidambaram S, Venkatramanan S, Prasanna MV, Pradeep K, Panda B. Factors determining the hydrogeochemical processes occurring in shallow groundwater of coastal alluvial aquifer, India. Geochemistry, 2020. DOI:

[20] Leila, H., Mohammad, M., Mojtaba, P., Nadia, E., Shahram, M. Groundwater salinity and quality assessment using multivariate statistical and hydrogeochemical analysis along the Urmia Lake coastal in Azarshahr plain, North West of Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 2019, 78: 670.

[21] Guo, Y. H., Shen, Z. L., Zhong, Z. X. Downward movement of shallow saline groundwater and its impact on deep-lying groundwater system, Hydrogeol. Eng. Geol., 1995, 2: 8-12.

[22] de Louw, P. G. B., Eeman, S., Oude Essink, G. H. P., Vermue, E., Post, V. E. A. Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tiledrained agricultural field. J. Hydrol., 2013, 501: 133- 145.

[23] Han, D. M., Kohfahl, C., Song, X. F., Xiao, G. Q., Yang, J. L. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for palaeo-seawater intrusion into the south coast aquifer of Laizhou Bay, China. Appl. Geochem., 2011, 26: 863-883.

[24] Myshakin, E., Siriwardane, H., Hulcher, C., Lindner, E., Sams, N., King, S., McKoy, M. Numerical simulations of vertical growth of hydraulic fractures and brine migration in geologica formations above the Marcellus shale. J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng., 2015, 27: 531- 544.

[25] Aunay, B., Dörfliger, N., Duvail, C., Grelot, F., Le Strat, P., Montginoul, M., Rinaudo, J. D. Hydro-socio-economic implications for water management strategies: the case of Roussillon coastal aquifer, in: International Symposium - DARCY 2006. Aquifer Systems Management, Dijon, France, 2006: 9.

[26] Eyankware, M. O., Omo-Irabor, O. O. An Integrated Approach to Groundwater Quality Assessment in Determining Factors that Influence the Geochemistry and Origin of Sandstone Aquifers Southern Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria. Malaysian Journal of Geosciences, 2019, 3(2): 23-32.

[27] Ocheri, M.I, Odoma, L.A., Umar. N.D. Groundwater Quality in Nigerian Urban Areas: A Review. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: H Environment & Earth Science., 2014, 14(3): 35-44

[28] Bhandari N. S., Hemant, K. J. Quality of spring water used for irrigation in the Almora District of Uttarakhand, India. Chin. J. Geochem., 2013. DOI: 10.1007/s11631-013-0615-5

[29] Akinsanola, A., Ogunjobi, K. Analysis of rainfall and temperature variability Over Nigeria. Global J HumSoc Sci: B Geogr GeoSci., 2014, 14(3): 19.

[30] Ayanlade, A., Radeny, M., Morton, J. F., Muchaba, T. Rainfall variability and drought characteristics in two agro-climatic zones: an assessment of climate change challenges in Africa. Sci Total Environ., 2018, 630: 728-737.

[31] Obaje, N.G., Ulu, O. K., Petters, S. W. Biostratigraphic and geochemical controls of hydrocarbon prospects in the Benue Trough and Anambra Basin, Nigeria. NAPE Bull, 1999, 14: 18-54.

[32] Nuhu,G.O.. Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria, 2009. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-92685-6

[33] Omlin, S., Bauer, G.F., Brink, M. Effects of noise from non-traffic related ambient sources on sleep: review of the literature of 1990 - 2010. Noise Health, 2011, 13: 299-309.

[34] Aderibigbe, T. A., Jimoh, A. A. Olisah. C. Hydrochemical Studies of Surface Water and Groundwater in Lagos State, Southwest Nigeria. J of Environ Sci. Toxicology and Food Tech., 2017, 9(12): 43-52.

[35] Eyankware, M. O. Hydrochemical Apprasial of Groundwater for Irrigation Purpose: A Case Study of Ekaeru Inyimagu and Its Adjoining Area, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Indian J. of Sci., 2016a, 23(88): 924- 943.

[36] Ayuba, R., Tijani, M. N., Omonona. O. V. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Quality Assessment of Groundwater from Shallow Wells in Gboloko Area, Central Nigeria. Global J of Geological Sci., 2017: 15: 65-76.

[37] Eyankware, M. O. Nnajieze, V. S. Aleke, C. G. Geochemical Assessment of Water Quality for Irrigation Purpose, in Abandoned Limestone Quarry pit at Nkalagu area, Southern Benue Trough Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci., 2018, 77: 66.

[38] Oladeji, O. S. Adewoye, A.O. Adegbola, A. A..Suitability assessment of groundwater resources for irrigation around Otte Village, Kwara State, Nigeria. Int. J of Applied Sci. and Engi. Res., 2012, 1(3): 437- 445.

[39] Talabi, A. O., Afolagboye, O. L., Tijani, M. N., Aladejana, J. A. Ogundana, A. K. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Surface Water in the Central Part of Ekiti-State, Southwestern Nigeria. American J of Water Resources, 2013, 1(4): 56-65.

[40] Aleke, C. G., Nwachukwu, C. M. Assessment and characterization of the Basement aquifer at Idu-Karmo, area of FCT-Abuja, Nigeria, for drinking and irrigation. Environ. Earth Sci., 2019, 77: 789.

[41] Talabi, A. O. The Suitability of Groundwater for Domestic and Irrigation Purpose; a case study of Ikere Ekiti, SW Nigeria. Intern J of Environ, Agric and Biotech., 2017, 2(1): 181-194.

[42] Omo - Irabor, O. O., Eyankware, M. O., Ogwah, C. Integration of Hydrogeochemical Analytical Methods and Irrigation Parameters in the Evaluation of Groundwater Quality at Ibinta, Southern Benue Trough Nigeria. FUPRE J of Sci. and Industrial Res., 2018b, 2(1): 38-49.

[43] Nwankwoala, H. O, Abadom, N. D, Oborie, E. Geochemical Assessment and Modeling of Water Quality for Irrigation and Industrial Purposes in Otuoke and Environs, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Water Conservation and Management, 2018, 2(1): 13-17.

[44] Onyeabor, C. F., Nwatalari, N.R. Irrigation Suitability of Surface Waters of Enyigba Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering and Technology, 2018, 4(9): 51-57.

[45] Egirani, D.E., Nomji, J. K. Preliminary investigation of the hydro-geochemical characteristics of ground water in parts of the Makurdi formation, Nigeria. Integrated J of Environ. Sci. and Techn., 2002, 32: 2640-2649.

[46] Ekpe, I..I, Idike, F.I., Alimba, J.O. Miscellaneous Properties Of Irrigation Water Sources of Ebonyi State Southeast Nigeria. Research Journal of Agriculture, 2014, 1(2): 1-7.

[47] Eyankware, M. O., Ogwah, C., Selemo. A. O. I. Evaluation of the Process Governing Groundwater Suitability for Irrigation at Oju and its Adjourning Area, Benue State, Nigeria. Using Hydrochemical Approach. Intern. Jour. of Environ Sci. & Natural Res., 2019. DOI: 10.19080/IJESNR.2018.16.555926

[48] Eyankware, M. O., Obasi, P.N., Akaku - ru, O.C. Use of hydrochemical Approach in Evaluation Water Quality around the Vicinity of Mkpuma Ekwaoku Mining District, Ebonyi State, SE. Nigeria for Irrigation Purpose. Indian J of Sci., 2016b, 23(88): 881-895.

[49] Ethan, S., Olagoke O., A. Yunusa. Assessment of the Quality of Irrigation Water at the Badeggi and Edozighi Irrigation Schemes. Intern. J. of Geol. Agric. and Environ. Sci., 2014, 2(3): 35-37.

[50] FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 29(1): 1-130.

[51] Omotoso, O.A, Ojo, O. J. Assessment of quality of river Niger floodplain water at Jebba, central Nigeria: implications for irrigation. Water Utility J., 2012, 4: 13-24.

[52] Eyankware, M. O., Aleke, C.G., Selemo, A.O.I., Nnabo, P. N. Hydrogeochemical Studies and Suitability Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation at Warri and Environs., Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 2020a. DOI:

[53] Eyankware, M. O., Selemo, A.O.I. Omo-Irabor, O. O. Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Ground and Surface water of Eruemukohwarien Community and its Environs for Domestic and Irrigation Purpose, Western Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Jour. of Sci. and Tech., 2016, 3(10): 91-108.

[54] Eyankware, M. O. Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater for Irrigation Purposes in Mining Areas of Umuoghara Near, Abakaliki, SE. Nigeria. Science and Technology, 2017c, 3(9): 1-19.

[55] Tsuzom, J. N., Olaniyan, I. O. Stream Water Quality Assessment for Irrigation at Nasarawa - Kakuri Area of Kaduna, Nigeria. British J of Appl. Sci. & Tech, 2015, 8(6): 608-615.

[56] Akpan -Idiok, A, U., Ibrahim, A., Udo, A.I. Water Quality Assessment of Okpaukpu River for Drinking and Irrigation Use in Yala, Cross River State. Nigeria. Res. J of Environ. Science, 2012, 6(6): 210-221.

[57] Eyankware, M. O., Ogwah, C. R.O.E. Ulakpa. The study of sea water intrusion in coastal aquifer of Niger Delta Region, Nigeria. Middle-East Journal of Sci Res, 2020b, 28(4): 369-379.

[58] Jiang, Y., Li, R., Yang, Y., Yu, M., Xi, B., Li, M., Xu, Z., Gao, S., Yang, C. Migration and evolution of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachate-contaminatedgroundwater plume. Resour. Conser. Recy., 2019, 151: 104463. DOI: resconrec.2019.104463

[59] Ighalo JO, Adeniyi AG, Adeniran JA, Ogunniyi S, A. Systematic literature analysis of the nature and regional distribution of water pollution sources in Nigeria, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2020. DOI:



  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2020 Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.