A Comparative Study of Groundwater between Geological Groups of Southern Benue Trough, Nigeria Using Modelling Approach

Moses Oghenenyoreme Eyankware (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State, Nigeria;Geomoses Consultancy Limited Warri, Delta State, Nigeria)
Philip Njoku Obasi (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State, Nigeria)
Christoper Ogwah (Department of Geology, Ebonyi State University, Ebonyi State, Nigeria)

Article ID: 3694

Abstract


Groundwater studies were carried out between two geological groups to evaluate factors that influences groundwater geochemistry. To achieve this, 30 groundwater samples were collected. Parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (Ec), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), and hydrochemical characteristics (Na2+, K+ , Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3¯, NO3¯, Cl¯, CO23¯, and SO42¯) of groundwater were determined. Findings revealed that the pH value for Asu River Group ranges from 5.3 to 7.5, and that of Eze Aku Group ranges from 4.1 to 7.9. It was observed that areas around the mines had low pH values. Analyzed results that were obtained were interpreted using various hydrogeochemical models. Parson plots reflected that groundwater within the two geological groups fell within Ca˗Mg˗SO4 and Ca˗Mg˗Cl. Results from End˗member plots showed that 96% of groundwater samples analyzed were categorized under carbonate weathering, 4% fell silicate weathering. Gibbs plots revealed that interactions between groundwater and surrounding host rocks are mostly the main processes responsible for chemical characteristics of groundwater, Diamond field plots suggested that groundwater within the study were categorized to be high in Ca + Mg & SO4 + Cl, the plot of Ca2+/(HCO3¯+SO42¯) against Na+/Cl¯ revealed that groundwater was considered to be within the natural state for the two group. The plot of TDS against TH showed that groundwater is classified as soft freshwater. The study revealed there was no significant difference between factors that influence groundwater within the two geological.


Keywords


Weathering; Ion exchange; Group; Groundwater; Nigeria

Full Text:

PDF

References


[1] Liu, j., Wang, M.,Gao, Z., Chen, Q., Wu, G., Li, F. (2020). Hydrochemical characteristics and water quality assessment of groundwater in the Yishu River basin. Acta Geophysica. 68:877-889 https://doi. org/10.1007/s11600-020-00440-1.

[2] Obasi, P.N., Eyankware, M. O., Akudinobi, B. E. B. (2021). Characterization and evaluation of the effects of mine discharges on surface water resources for irrigation: a case study of the Enyigba Mining District, Southeast Nigeria. Applied Water Science (2021) 11:112 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-021-01400-w.

[3] Igwe, O., Una, C. O., Abu, E., Adepehin, E. J. (2017). Environmental risk assessment of lead-zinc mining: a case study of Adudu metallogenic province, middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 189(10):492.

[4] Obiorah SC, Chukwu A, Toteu SF, Davies TC (2018) Contamination of the potable water supply sources in the lead-zinc mining communities of Enyigba, Southeastern Nigeria. Mine Water Environ. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10230-018-0550-0.

[5] Eyankware, M. O., Ogwah, C., Okeke, G. C. (2018). Geochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Origin Using Source Rock Deduction and Hydrochemical Facies at Umuoghara Mining Area, Lower Benue Trough, SE Nigeria. International Research Journal of Earth Science, 6 (10), 1-11.

[6] Xiancang, W., Changsuo L., Bin, S., Fuqiang G., Shuai G., Minghui, L., Xueying M., Hu Li., Liting X. (2020). Groundwater hydrogeochemical formation and evolution in a karst aquifer system affected by anthropogenic impacts. Environ Geochem Health (2020) 42:2609-2626. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10653-019-00450-z.

[7] Laxman K. D., Ratnakar, D., Sakram, G., Srinivas, B. (2021). Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and agricultural utility in a granitic terrain of Maheshwaram area of Ranga Reddy district, Telnagana State, India. Hydroresearch, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hydres.2021.02.002.

[8] Azadeh, G., Mehrdad, C., Soheil, S., Bahareh, L., Hajar, M. (2020). Hydrogeochemical characteristics, temporal, and spatial variations for evaluation of groundwater quality of Hamedan-Bahar Plain as a major agricultural region, West of Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences (2020) 79:428 https://doi. org/10.1007/s12665-020-09177-y.

[9] Bouderbal, A. (2017). Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in the upper Chelif plain, Algeria. Journal of Geological Society India, 90:347. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-017-0723-7.

[10] Eyankware, M.O., Akakuru, C. O., Ulakpa, R. O. E., Eyankware, E.O. (2021). Sustainable management and characterization of groundwater resource in coastal aquifer of Niger delta basin Nigeria. Sustainable Water Resources Management. https://doi. org/10.1007/s40899-021-00537-5.

[11] Rawat, K. S,, Tripathi, V.K., Singh, S. K., (2017). Groundwater quality evaluation using numerical indices: a case study (Delhi, India). Sustainable Water Resources Management, 4:875-885.

[12] Osman A, Rashid bin Y, Al-Abri (2014). Factors affecting groundwater chemistry in regional arid basins of variable lithology: example of Wadi Umairy, Oman. Arab Journal of Geosciences, https://doi 10.1007/s12517-013-0981-7.

[13] Eyankware, M. O., Ogwah, C. (2018). Use of Modelling Approach in evaluation of Fractured Shale Aquifers for irrigation purpose; a case study of Oju, Lower Benue Trough Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Geology. 3(1):1-11.

[14] Eyankware, M. O., Obasi, P. N., OmoIrabor, O. O., Akakuru, O.C.(2020). Hydrochemical characterization of abandoned quarry and mine water for domestic and irrigation uses in Abakaliki, southeast Nigeria. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40808-020-00827-5.

[15] Reyment, R. A. (1965). Aspects of geology of Nigeria. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan.

[16] Agumanu, A. E. (1989). The Abakaliki and Ebonyi formations: subdivisions of the Albian Asu River Group in the southern Benue Trough, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Science, 9: 195-207.

[17] Hoque, M. (1977). Petrographic differentiation of tectonically controlled Cretaceous sedimentary cycles, southern Nigeria. Sediment Geology, 17:235- 245.

[18] Nwajide, C. S. (2013). Geology of Nigeria‟s Sedimentary Basin. CSS Bookshops Ltd Lagos, pp. 56- 98.

[19] Murat RC (1972) Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria In:Dessauvagie TFJ, Whiteman AJ (Eds). Afri. Geol. University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 201-266.

[20] Okogbue, C. O,, Aghamelu, O.P. (2013). Performance of pyroclastic rocks from Abakaliki Metropolis (southeastern Nigeria) in road construction projects. Bulletin Engineering Geology Environment, 72:433-446. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-013- 0489-0.

[21] Obiora, S. C., Umeji, A.C. (2004). Petrographic evidence for regional burial metamorphism of the sedimentary rocks in the lower Benue Rift. Journal of African Earth Science, 38:269-277.

[22] Obiora, S. C, Charan, S. N. (2011). Geochemistry of regionally metamorphosed sedimentary rocks from the lower Benue Rift: implications for provenance and tectonic setting of the Benue Rift sedimentary suite. African Journal Geology 114:25-40.

[23] Farrington JL (1952) A preliminary description of Nigerian land - zinc field. Economic Geology, 47:485- 508.

[24] Akande, S.O., Mucke, A., Umeji, A.C. (1990). Mineralogical, textural and paragenetic studies of the lead-zinc- copper ore in the lower Benue Trough and their genetic implications. Journal of Mining Geology, 26(2): 157-163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10706- 013-9619-5699-711.

[25] Uma, K. O., Onuoha, K. M., Egboka, B.C.E. (1990). Hydrochemical facies, groundwater flow pattern and origin of saline waters in parts of the western flank of the Cross River basin, Nigeria. In: Ofoegbu CO (ed) The Benue trough structure and volution, friedr. Vieweg and Sohn, Braunschweig, pp 115-134.

[26] Eyankware, M. O., Ogwah, C., Umayah, O. S. (2021). Integrated geophysical and hydrogeochemical characterization and assessment of groundwater studies in Adum West Area of Benue State, Nigeria. Journal of Geological Research 65, 65881289. https://doi. org/10.30564/jgr.v3i3.3197.

[27] APHA (American Public Health Association), (2003), Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater specifications, Washington DC, 6, 19th edition.

[28] Sawyer, C. N., McCarty, P. L. (1967). Chemistry for sanitary engineers. 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, Pp.518.

[29] Raghunath, I. I. M. (1987) Groundwater, 2nd edn. Wiley, New Delhi, pp 344-369.

[30] Tutmeza, B., Hatipoglub Z, Kaymakc U. (2006). Modelling electrical conductivity of groundwater using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Computers & Geosciences 32 421-433. DOI: 10.1016/j.cageo.2005.07.003.

[31] Hem JD (1985) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, 2nd edn. US Geol Surv Water Supply Paper 2254:363.

[32] Eyankware, M.O., Nnabo, P.N., Ogwah, C. (2020). Impact of past mining activity on water resources around active and abandoned mines in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria- A mini review. Hydro Science and Marine Engineering, 2(2): 29-35. https:// doi.org/10.30564/hsme.v2i2.2412.

[33] Raju, N. J., Ram, P., Dey, S. (2009). Groundwater quality in the lower Varuna river basin, Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh. Journal of Geology Society India. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-009-0074-0.

[34] Othman, S. M., Lim, E. C., Mushrifah, I., Shaharudin, I. (2005). Water quality and heavy metals in Chini Lake, Pahang. Paper presented at the Seminar of IRPA RMK-8 (EAR), UKM, Bangi, Malaysia.

[35] Gaillardet, J., Dupré, B., Louvat, P., Allègre, C. J.(1999). Global silicate weathering and CO2 consumption rates deduced from the chemistry of large rivers. Chemical Geology, 159, 3-30.

[36] Gibbs, R. J. (1970). Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science 170:1088-109.

[37] Lawrence, JF, Balasubramanian A (1994), Groundwater condition and disposition of salt-fresh water interaction in the Rameswaram island, Tamilnadu; Regional workshop on environment aspect of groundwater development, October 17-19, Kurukshetra, India.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jees.v3i2.3694

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2021 Author(s)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.