Petroleum Filling Stations and Their Impact on the Environment in Nigeria

Ruth Oghenerukevwe Eyankware Ulakpa (Department of Environmental Management and Pollution Control, Nigeria Maritime University, Okerenkoko,Nigeria)
Wisdom Chukwuemeke Ulakpa (Federal University of Technology, Minna Niger State, Nigeria)
Oghenegare Emmanuel Eyankware (University of Port-Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria)

Article ID: 4073


The poor state of the environment, especially in urban areas, has become a major global issue, with developing countries such as Nigeria voicing growing concern. There is a scarcity of knowledge on the environmental impact of PFSs as a result of the loss of life and property, as well as other serious socio-economic implications of non-compliance with PFSs siting criteria. The historical literature on the impact of residential buildings, the environment, and human health on PFSs in Nigeria, as well as the study’s gap, is examined in this research. It also outlines DPR compliance with PFSs location as well as established criteria for prohibiting PFS siting in Nigeria’s states. Relevant publications on PFSs-related topics were downloaded from Google Scholar. The goal of this study is to look back on a previous essay about PFSs in Nigeria and its impacts on the environment and human health. This study’s main purpose is to give a complete overview of Nigerian PFSs. According to the article analyzed, the majority of PFSs were located close to residents, with setbacks from the road and residential areas of less than 30 m in 90% of the filling stations. As a result, the landowners can band together to argue that a facility that is improperly sited cannot be built. A great deal of public participation is required. A campaign should be launched to raise awareness among filling station owners and other developers of the dangers of non-compliance with established norms. All violators of the established norms, as well as corrupt officials of enforcement agencies/bodies, should face open punishment so that others might learn their lessons. Finally, appropriate planning is required to allow future road expansion.


Petroleum filling stations (PFSs); Environment; Health; Impact; Department of Petroleum Resource (DPR)

Full Text:



[1] Steinemann, A.C., 2008. .Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 29, 32e38.

[2] Ott, M.G., Townsend, J.C., Fishbeck, W.A., et al., 1978. Mortality among workers occupationally exposed to benzene. Archives of Environmental Health. 33, 3e10.

[3] Lynge, E., Andersen, A., Nilsson, R., et al., 1997. Risk of cancer and exposure to gasoline vapors. American. Journal of Epidemiology. 145, 449e458.

[4] Uren, S.A., 1997. Pilot study to assess benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations. Croydon. Available on the Internet. UK Department of Environment, UK.

[5] Ohlrogge, K., Wind, J., Hassel, D., 2000. New technology for emission reduction at petrol stations”. In: Czech Association of IUAPPA (International Union of Air Pollution Prevention and Environmental Associations) (Ed.). Conference Proceedings of the 12th Regional Central European Conference IUAPPA and 4th International Conference on Environmental Impact Assessment. pp. 418e425.

[6] Brugnone, F., Perbellini, L., Romeo, L., et al., 1997. Environmental exposure and blood levels of benzene in gas station attendants.Comparison with the general population. Medicinadel Lavoro. 88, 131e147.

[7] Periago, J.F., Prado, C., 2005. Evolution of occupational exposure to environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in service stations. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 49, 233e240.

[8] Gonzalez-Flesca, N., Vardoulakis, S., Cicolella, A., 2003. BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 9, 169e174.INSHT”.National Institute of Safety and Hygiene at Work.Ministry of Labor and Immigration, Government of Spain. portal/site Insht/menuitem.a82abc159115c8090128ca10060961ca/?vgnextoid¼4458908b51593110VgnVCM100000dc0ca8c0RCRD.

[9] Palmgren, F., Hansen, A.B., Berkowicz, R., et al., 2001. Benzene emission from the actual car fleet in relation to petrol composition in Denmark. Atmospheric Environment. 1, S35eS42.

[10] Srivastava, A., Joseph, A.E., More, A., et al., 2005. Emissions of VOCs at urban petrol retail distribution centers in India (Delhi and Mumbai). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 109, 227e242.

[11] Fernández-Villarrenaga, V., López-Mahía, P., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S., et al., 2005. Possible influence of a gas station on volatile organic compounds levels in the ambient air of an urban area. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 14, 368e372.

[12] Periago, J.F., Prado, C., 2005. Evolution of occupational exposure to environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in service stations. Ann. occup.Hyg. 49(3), 233-240.

[13] Terrés, M., Minarro, D., Ferradas, G., et al., 2010. Assessing the impact of petrol stations on their immediate surroundings. Journal of Environmental Management. 91, 2754-2762.

[14] Patroescu, M., Nita, M.R., Ioja, I.C., et al., 2009. New residential areas in Bucharest metropolitan area location, type and characteristics. Real Corp Proceedings. pp. 767-772.

[15] 18 Directive 94/63/EC on the control of VOC emissions resulting from storage of petrol and its distribution from terminal to service stations, Available. do?uri=OJ:L:1994:365:0024:0033:EN:PDF, accessed at 18.XI.2011.

[16] Ioja, I.C., Onose, D., Cucu, A., et al., 2010. Changes in water quality in the lakes along Colentina River under the influence of the residential areas in Bucharest. Selected Topics in Energy. Environment, Sustainable Development and Landscaping. pp. 164-169.

[17] DeRoos, A., Davis, S., Colt, S., et al., 2010. Residential proximity to industrial facilities and risk of non-Hodgkinlymphoma. Environmental Research. 110, 70-78.

[18] Ioja, I.C., 2008. Methods for evaluating the quality of the environment in the metropolitan area of Bucharest. Bucharest: University of Bucharest Publishing House.

[19] Joseph, P., Riva, J.R., 2010. The history of the words petroleum industry. Newyork publisher. 1, 6-7.

[20] Timothy, P.M., 2006. Health and environment effect of air pollution. USEPA publications. pp. 23-25.

[21] Isabel, M.C., Graciela, A., Monica, R.C., 2010. Evaluating emission from gas stations. Journal of environmental management. 6, 42-50.

[22] Amakiri-whyte, B.H., Aselemi, A.E., Akpabio, M.U.A., 2021. Causes and Environmental Problems of Petrol Filling Stations in Residential Domain of Nigeria Town. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation. 8(1), 2321-2705.

[23] Ulakpa, R.O.E., Ulakpa, W.C., 2021. A Review on the Effects of Fumes from Tricycles (Keke) on Health and Environment, Nigeria. An International Scientific Journal. 40, 49-64.

[24] Nuhu, G.O., 2019. Geology and Mineral Resources of Nigeria. DOI:

[25] Eyankware, M.O., Igwe, E.O., Ulakpa, R.O.E., 2020. Achieving Sustainable use and Management of Water Resources for Irrigation in Nigeria. Review. Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences. 2(2), 47-55.

[26] Okonkwo, U.C., Orji, I.N., Onwuamaeze, I., 2014. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol and Gas Filling Stations on Air Quality in Umuahia, Nigeria. 13(1), 12-20.

[27] Mohammed, M.U., Musa, I.J., Jeb, M.U., 2014. GISBased Analysis of the Location of Filling Stations in Metropolitan Kano against the Physical Planning Standards. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER). pp. 147-158.

[28] Olapeju, O., 2017. Assessing The Location and Spatial Distribution of Petrol Filling Stations in Ilaro, Ogun State. National environmental conference of the school of environmental studies. pp. 1-13.

[29] Cristian I.I., Constantina, A.T., 2012. Temporal analysis of incompatible land-use and land-cover: The proximity between residential areas and gas stations in Bucharest suburban area. Elsevier, Procedia Environmental Sciences. (14), 49 - 58.

[30] Sulaiman, Y., 2019. Analysis of Locational Compliance and Fire Safety Preparedness among Petrol Filling Stations in Dutse Town, Jigawa State. Yunus Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies. 13(1), 107-118.

[31] Ulakpa, R.O.E., Iyi E.A., Okwu, V.U.D., et al., 2016. Impact of Telecommunication Masts on Environmental Planning in Enugu Urban Area of Enugu State. International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research. 1(1), 1-17.

[32] Olusegun, A., Folakemi, O., Omotayo, S., et al., 2011. Assessment of Safety Practices in Filling Stations in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 23, 9-15. https:// IleIfe_South_Western_Nigeria.

[33] Ayodele, S.J., 2011. Spatial distribution of petroleum filling station in Kaduna North. Retrieved from www.

[34] Ehinomen, C., Adeleke, A., 2012. An Assessment of the Distribution of Petroleum Products in Nigeria. E3 Journal of Business Management and Economics. 3(6), 232-241.

[35] Mshelia, A.M., John, A., Emmanuel, D.D., 2015. Environmental Effects of Petrol Stations at Close Proximities to Residential Buildings in Maiduguri and Jere, Borno State, Nigeria. Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 20(4), 1-8.

[36] Samuel, B.A., Ogoro, M., Amanoritsewo, O.J., 2015. Petrol Filling Stations’ Location and Minimum Environmental Safety Requirement in ObioAkporLGA, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology. 2(11).

[37] Karakitsios, S.P., Delis, V.K., Kassomenos, P.A., et al., 2007. Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations: estimation of the associated health risk. Atmospheric Environment. 41, 1889e1902.

[38] Afolabi, O.T., Olajide, F.O., Omotayo, S.K., 2011. Assessment of Safety Practices in Filling Stations in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 23(1&2).

[39] Ogundahunsi, D.S., 2019. Locational Analysis of Fuel Stations, in Ilesa, Osun State, Nigeria. International Journal of Development Strategies in Humanities, Management and Social Sciences. 4(2), 1-15.

[40] Boison, D.K., Asamoah, H.Y., Addison, L., et al., 2018. Assessing Factors Influencing Sales Performance and Siting of a Fuel Station Projects: Study of Spintex Road, Accra Ghana. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research. 6(4), 1268- 1279.

[41] Joan, A., Ismail, W., 2020. Urban Spatial Risk Assessment of Fire from Fueling Stations on Buildings Case Study: Lubaga Division, Kampala City, Uganda. Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research. 8, 57-72.

[42] Ulasi, J.O., Uwadiegwu, B.O., Okoye, C.O., 2020. Assessment of the Level of Compliance of Petroleum Filling Stations to Development Control Standards on Land Space/Size and Setbacks in Anambra State.International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE): E-Journals. 12(2), 2224-5790.

[43] WHO: Why Urban Health Matters Geneva 11. Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) Abuja Switzerland, April 2010. ttp://www. Who.Int/world (Headquarters) day/2010/media/ whd2010/background.Pdf 12. Dispensing petrol as fuel: Health and safety (Accessed March 20th, 2014).

[44] Tatrai, E., Ungavry, G., Cseh, I.R., et al., 1981. The effect of long-term whole body exposure to orthoxylene on liver. In: Industrial and Environmental Xenobiotics. I. Girkt and G. L. Plaa (eds), Springer-Verlag, Berlin. pp. 161- 168.

[45] Zahlsen, K., Nielson, A.M., Eide, I., et al., 1993. Inhalation kinetics of C8 -C10, I - alkenes and isoalkanes in rats after repeated exposure. Pharmacol. Toxicology. (73), 163-168.

[46] Onwurah, I.N.E., 1999. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in Azotobactervinelandii exposed to mercury, silver, crude oil and fenton reagent. Journal of toxic substances. 18(4), 167-176.

[47] Khan, A.A., Coppock, R.W., Schuler, M.M., et al., 2002. Biochemical changes as early stage systemic biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure in human. Toxicolology Letters. 134(1-3), 195-200.

[48] World Health Organization (WHO), 2012.

[49] Nwanjo, H.U., Ojiako, O.A., 2007. Investigating the Potential Health Hazards of the Petrol Station Attendants in Owerri Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 11(2), 1-5.

[50] Oladele, E.A., Michael, A.O., 2021. Health Implication on Residents Close to Petrol Station in Ife Central, Nigeria. Urban and Regional Planning. 6(2), 79- 86. DOI:

[51] Alam, R., Zafar, A., Ghafoor, A., et al., 2014. Lung function abnormalities among fuel filling workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Pinnacle Environmental and Earth Sciences. 1(1), 183-187.

[52] Wallace, L., 1987. The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study: Summary and Analysis, Volume I, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

[53] CONCAWE, 1994. Review of europeanoil industry benzene exposure data (1986 -1992) Brussels, Belgium: Oil Companies European Organisation for Environment. Health and Safety.

[54] Duarte-Davidson, R., Courage, C., Rushton, L., et al., 2001. Benzene in the environment: an assessment of the potential risk to the health of the population. Occup.Env. Med. 58(1), 2-13.

[55] Esteves, F.A., Pastor, A., Guaria, M., 2007. Assessing air quality inside vehicles and at filling stations by minitoring benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes with the use of semipermeable devices.AnalyticaChimicaActa. 593(1), 108-116.

[56] Majumdar, D., Dutta, C., Mukherjee, A.K., et al., 2008. Source apportionment of VOCs at the petrol pumps in Kolkata, India; exposure of workers and assessment of associated health risk,Transp. Res. Part D. (13), 524-530.

[57] Karakitsios, S.P., Papaloukas, C.L., Kassomenos, P.A., et al., 2007a. Assessment and prediction of exposure to benzene of filling station employees. Atm. Env. 41(40), 9555-9569.

[58] Karakitsios, S.P., Delisa, V.K., Kassomenos P.A., et al., 2007. Contribution to ambient benzene concentrations in the vicinity of petrol stations: Estimation of the associated health risk. Atm. Env. 41(9), 1889- 1902.

[59] Terrés, I.M.M., Miñarro, M.D., Ferradas, E.G., et al., 2010. Assessing the impact of petrol stations on their immediate surroundings. Journal of Environmental Management. 91(12), 2754-2762.

[60] Fracasso, M.E., Doria, D., Bartolucci, G.B., et al., 2010. Low air levels of benzene: Correlation between biomarkers of exposure and genotoxic effects. Toxicol.Lett. 192(1), 22-28.

[61] Odipe, O., Lawal, A., Adio, Z., et al., 2018. GISBased Location Analyses of Retail Petrol Stations in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and EngineeringResearch. (9), 790-794. of_Retail_Petrol_Stations_in_Ilorin_Kwara_State_ Nigeria.

[62] Olanrewaju, S., Wakeel, A., A, O., 2020. Spatial Distribution and Perceived Environmental Health Impacts of Petrol Filling Stations in Ede, Osun State, Nigeria Kaduna State. University Environmental Science Journal (KESJ). 1(1), 1-17.

[63] Aguib, A., Garni, D.A., Smith, S., 2013. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for Locating Suitable Mangrove Plantation Sites alongthe Saudi Arabian Red Sea Coast. Available online: faculty/ssmith/Sea_Coast.pdf (Accessed on 21 January 2013).

[64] Ali, Z., Khan, D., Hussain, R., 2012. Adaptation Measures in EIA and Risks Management: An Overview of the Legal Framework in Pakistan. Online J. Sci. Technol. (2), 1-11.

[65] Appiah, D.O., Schröder, D., Forkuo, E.K., et al., 2015. Application of Geo-Information Techniques in Land Use and Land Cover Change Analysis in a Peri-Urban District of Ghana. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. (4), 1265-1289.

[66] Carrión, J.A., Estrella, A.E., Dols, F.A., et al., 2008. Environmental Decision-Support Systems for Evaluating the Carrying Capacity of Land Areas: Optimal Site Selection for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Power Plants. Renew.Sustain. Energy Rev. (12), 2358- 2380.

[67] Arumaningrum, D.G., 2021. Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report for The Proposed Maseki Filling Station in Kitui on Plot, L.R. Lincolin Arsyad 2014, 3. Available online: http://journal.stainkudus. Accessed on 1 June 2021).

[68] Matori, A.N., Aulia, B.U., 2010. Suitability Analysis of Petrol Filling Station Site Using GIS. Malaysia. Constr. Res. Journal (MCRJ). (70), 1-14.

[69] Choudhury, E., Das, E., 2012. GIS and Remote Sensing for Landfill Site Selection-A Case Study on Dharmanagar Nagar Panchayet. IOSR J. Environ. Sci. Toxicol. Food Technol. (1), 36-43.

[70] Darko, S., 2015. Ghana Petrol Station Inferno Kills about 150 in Accra-BBC News. Available online: (Accessed on 1 June 2015).

[71] Moghaddam, D.D., Haghizadeh, A., Tahmasebipour, N., et al., 2020. Introducing the Coupled Stepwise Areal ConstrainingandMahalanobis Distance: A Promising MCDM-Based Probabilistic Model for Landfill Site Selection. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (27), 24954-24966.

[72] De Siqueira, C.B.A.; de Mello, R.A., 2006. Decision Support Method for Environmental Impact Assessment Using a Fuzzy LogicApproach. Ecol. Econ. (58), 170-181.

[73] Deeb, R.A., Hu, H.Y., Hanson, J.R., et al., 2001. Substrate Interactions in BTEX and MTBE Mixtures by an MTBE-Degrading Isolate. Environ. Sci. Technol. (35), 312-317.

[74] Ekanayake, L.L., Ofori, G., 2015. Construction material waste source evaluation. In Proceedings of the Second Southern AfricanConference on Sustainable Development in the Built Environment, Pretoria, South Africa. 9-11, 23-25.

[75] International Finance Corporation (IFC), 2007. Environmental, Health, and Safety Guidelines for Cement and Lime Manufacturing; IFC:Washington, DC, USA.

[76] Ghayoumian, J., Saravi, M.M., Feiznia, S., et al., 2007. Application of GIS Techniques to Determine Areas Most Suitable for Artificial Groundwater Recharge in a Coastal Aquifer in Southern Iran. J. Asian Earth Sci. (30), 364-374.

[77] Hassanain, M.A., Al-Mudhei, A., 2006. Fire Safety Evaluation of Motor Fuel Dispensing Facilities. Struct.Surv. (24), 65-76.

[78] Kirby, R.S., 2003. GIS and Public Health. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geogr. (93), 261-263.

[79] Malczewski, J., 2007. GIS-Based Multicriteria Decision Analysis a Survey of the Literature. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. (20), 703-726.

[80] Hangula, L.M., Shagama, F.N., 2020. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Establishment and Operation of a Proposed Fuel Service StationProject at Omutshona Filling Station, Okatana, Oshana Region; Omutshona Filling Station: Okatana, Namibia.

[81] Pedersen, K., Przychodzka, M., Civiš, M., et al., 2003. Environmental Impact Assessment of Petrol Usage. In Environmental Studies. Aarhus University: Aarhus, Denmark.

[82] Mohammed, M.U., Jeb, D.N., Musa, I.J., 2014. GISBased Analysis of the Location of Filling Stations in Metropolitan Kano against the Physical Planning Standards. Am. J. Eng. Res. (3), 147-158.

[83] Mulroy, P., 2012. Environmental Site Investigation and Due Diligence in current Market. In Proceedings of the Environmental APEA Petroleum Seminar, Cork, Ireland.

[84] Mundjulu, I., 2020. Environmental Scoping Report (ESR) for a Fuel Storage Facility. Ocean Bunker Petroleum Services: Windhoek, Namibia.

[85] Mwania, L.M., Kitengela, K., 2013. Proposed Construction of a Filling Station on Plot No.Makindu/ Kiboko B/687 Makindu. In Environmental Impact Assessment Study Report; Makueni County: Wote, Kenya.

[86] Njoku, C.G., Alagbe, A.O., 2015. Site Suitability Assessment of Petrol Filling Stations (PFSs) in Oyo Town, Oyo State, Nigeria. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Approach. IOSR J. Environ. Sci. Toxicology, Food Technol. (9), 8-19.

[87] O’Faircheallaigh, C., 2010. Public Participation and Environmental Impact Assessment: Purposes, Implications, and Lessons for Public Policy Making. Environ. Impact Assess. Rev. (30), 19-27.

[88] Ahmed, S., AbdulRahman, A.S., Kovo, A.S., et al., 2014. Health, Risk and Safety of Petrol Stations in Minna Town. An over View World Applied Sciences Journal. 32(4), 655-660.DOI: 04.881.

[89] Gonzalez-Flesca, N., Vardoulakis, S., Cicolella, A., 2002. BTX concentrations near a stage II implemented petrol station. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 9, 169e174.INSHT. 2003 National Institute of Safety and Hygiene at Work. Ministry of Labor and Immigration, Government of Spain.. a82abc159115c8090128ca10060961ca/?vgnextoid¼4458908b51593110VgnVCM100000dc0ca8c0RCRD.



  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2022 Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.