Promoting Pedestrian Transportation for Reducing Air Pollution from Urban Transport

Emre Kuşkapan (Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Architecture and Engineering, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum,Turkey)
Muhammed Yasin Çodur (College of Engineering and Technology, American University of the Middle East, Kuwait)

Article ID: 4570


Increasing air pollution around the world causes many problems, especially in the field of health. Air pollution affects not only human health but also other living things health. The factors that cause air pollution the most are heating, industry, and transportation. Many countries in the world carry out various studies to reduce the effect of these factors on air pollution. Especially in the field of transportation, studies have been quite a lot in recent years. In this study, air pollution caused by transportation in Erzurum, Turkey has investigated. Emission amounts of NOX, PM10, and SO2 values have calculated according to the types of vehicles in the city. Then, the amount of emissions from transportation in the total sector has revealed. The transportation structure of the city has examined in general terms and the missing aspects in terms of pedestrian transportation have revealed. Finally, some solution proposals aiming to encourage the use of pedestrian transportation and micro mobility vehicles in order to reduce motor land vehicles are presented.


Air pollution; Urban transport; Pedestrians

Full Text:



[1] Sun, J., Dang, Y., Zhu, X., et al., 2021. A grey spatiotemporal incidence model with application to factors causing air pollution. Science of the Total Environment. 759, 143576.

[2] Li, S., Feng, K., Li, M., 2017. Identifying the main contributors of air pollution in Beijing. Journal of Cleaner Production. 163, S359-S365.

[3] Van Fan, Y., Perry, S., Klemeš, J.J., et al., 2018. A review on air emissions assessment: Transportation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 194, 673-684.

[4] Bera, B., Bhattacharjee, S., Shit, P.K., et al., 2021. Significant impacts of COVID-19 lockdown on urban air pollution in Kolkata (India) and amelioration of environmental health. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 23(5), 6913-6940.

[5] Xie, R., Zhao, G., Zhu, B.Z., et al., 2018. Examining the factors affecting air pollution emission growth in China. Environmental Modeling & Assessment. 23(4), 389-400.

[6] Ambarwati, L., Verhaeghe, R., van Arem, B., et al., 2016. The influence of integrated space–transport development strategies on air pollution in urban areas. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 44, 134-146.

[7] Vafa-Arani, H., Jahani, S., Dashti, H., et al., 2014. A system dynamics modeling for urban air pollution: A case study of Tehran, Iran. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 31, 21-36.

[8] Armah, F.A., Yawson, D.O., Pappoe, A.A., 2010. A systems dynamics approach to explore traffic congestion and air pollution link in the city of Accra, Ghana. Sustainability. 2(1), 252-265.

[9] Vallero, D., 2019. Air pollution calculations: Quantifying pollutant formation, transport, transformation, fate and risks. Elsevier.

[10] Requia, W.J., Mohamed, M., Higgins, C.D., et al., 2018. How clean are electric vehicles? Evidence-based review of the effects of electric mobility on air pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions and human health. Atmospheric Environment. 185, 64-77.

[11] Eguiluz-Gracia, I., Mathioudakis, A.G., Bartel, S., et al., 2020. The need for clean air: the way air pollution and climate change affect allergic rhinitis and asthma. Allergy. 75(9), 2170-2184.

[12] Gatersleben, B., Uzzell, D., 2000. The risk perception of transport–generated air pollution. IATSS research. 24(1), 30-38.

[13] Krzyżanowski, M., Kuna-Dibbert, B., Schneider, J., 2005. Health effects of transport-related air pollution. WHO Regional Office Europe.

[14] Sahraei, M.A., Kuşkapan, E., Çodur, M.Y., 2021. Public transit usage and air quality index during the COVID-19 lockdown. Journal of Environmental Management. 286, 112-166.

[15] Sahraei, M.A., Kuşkapan, E., Çodur, M.Y., 2021. Impact of COVID-19 on public transportation usage and ambient air quality in Turkey. Promet-Traffic & Transportation. 33(2), 179-191.

[16] Chang, H.H., Meyerhoefer, C.D., Yang, F.A., 2021. COVID-19 prevention, air pollution and transportation patterns in the absence of a lockdown. Journal of Environmental Management. 298, 113522.

[17] Guo, X.R., Cheng, S.Y., Chen, D.S., et al., 2010. Estimation of economic costs of particulate air pollution from road transport in China. Atmospheric Environment. 44(28), 3369-3377.

[18] Yaduma, N., Kortelainen, M., Wossink, A., 2013. Estimating mortality and economic costs of particulate air pollution in developing countries: The case of Nigeria. Environmental and Resource Economics. 54(3), 361-387.

[19] Kuşkapan, E., Sahraei, M.A., Çodur, M.K., et al., 2022. Pedestrian safety at signalized intersections: Spatial and machine learning approaches. Journal of Transport & Health. 24, 101322.

[20] Kuşkapan, E., Çodur, M.Y., Atalay, A., 2021. Speed violation analysis of heavy vehicles on highways using spatial analysis and machine learning algorithms. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 155, 106098.

[21] Erzurum Provincial Directorate of Environment and Urbanization, Erzurum clean air action plan https:// (Accessed 21 Jan 2022).

[22] Anenberg, S., Miller, J., Henze, D., et al., 2019. A global snapshot of the air pollution-related health impacts of transportation sector emissions in 2010 and 2015. International Council on Clean Transportation: Washington, DC, USA.

[23] Umar, M., Ji, X., Kirikkaleli, D., et al., 2021. The imperativeness of environmental quality in the United States transportation sector amidst biomass-fossil energy consumption and growth. Journal of Cleaner Production. 285, 124863.

[24] Erzurum Metropolitan Municipality, number of road vehicles in Erzurum. (Accessed 13 Dec 2021).

[25] Erzurum Metropolitan Municipality Department of Transportation, annual gas emission status of road vehicles (Accessed 8 May 2021).

[26] Erzurum Police Department, number of road vehicles by fuel (Accessed 26 Sep 2020).

[27] Turkish Statistical Institute, Fuel types of road vehicles registered in Erzurum Province https://www. (Accessed 11 Feb 2022).



  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2022 Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.