Hydro-environmental Characteristics of Seawater around Boubyan Island, Kuwait Using Annual Variations of Seawater Temperature, Salinity and Tide Fluctuations

Neelamani Subramaniam (Coastal Management Program, Environment and Life Sciences Research Centre, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat13109, Kuwait)
Yousef Al-Osairi (Coastal Management Program, Environment and Life Sciences Research Centre, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat13109, Kuwait)

Article ID: 1000

Abstract


The temporal and spatial variations of seawater temperature, salinity, and tidal fluctuations are important parameters for understanding the hydrodynamic, water quality, and marine biological activity in the seawater. It is also important to study and understand the probability and statistical aspects of these parameters for the planning and implementation of different types of marine projects. These parameters were measured at five different locations around Boubyan Island, Kuwait, for a span of almost one year during 2015-16. Based on the analysis of the measured data, it is found that the seawater salinity has varied from 34.14 to 48.31 ppt. The seawater temperature is also found to vary from 10.83 oC to 35.67 oC.  The seawater level has varied from -2.694 m to 2.378 m with respect to the mean sea level. It is found that the peak of the probability density of seawater level is flat valued, whereas the probability density of salinity and seawater temperature is multimodal.  A comparison of present and past measured seawater temperatures revealed that in Khor Al-Sabiya, the seawater temperature is increasing at the rate of 0.034 oC/year, which clearly indicates the effect of global warming. A similar study reveals that the annual average increase in salinity at Khor Al-Sabiya is 0.38 ppt, which clearly indicates a significant reduction of freshwater flow from Shatt Al-Arab into the Arabian Gulf.  Since Kuwait is investing in many projects around the Boubyan Island, the results of this study will be useful for the integrated and sustainable development of Boubyan and Failaka Islands in Kuwait.


Keywords


Shatt Al-Arab; Khor Al- Sabiya; Khor Abdullah; Seawater temperature; Salinity; Tide

Full Text:

PDF

References


[1] Moore, J. W. and Ramamoorthy, S.. Heavy metals in natural waters-Applied monitoring and impact assessment. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.

[2] Boeuf, G. and Payan, P.. “How should salinity influence fish growth? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C”, 2001, 130: 411-423.

[3] Boeuf, G. and Le Bail, P.Y.. “Does light have an influence on fish growth?”, Aquaculture, 1999, 177: 129-152.

[4] Buckel, J.A., Steinberg, N.D. and Conover, D.O.. “Effects of temperature, salinity, and fish size on growth and consumption of juvenile bluefish”, J. Fish Biol., 1995, 47: 696-706.

[5] Conides, A.J., Parpoura, A.R., and Fotis, G.. “Study on the effects of salinity on the fry of the euryhaline species gilthead sea bream ŽSparus aurata L. 1758”, J. Aquacult. Trop., 1997, 12: 297-303.

[6] Canagaratman, P.. “Growth rates of fishes in different salinities”, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 1959, 16: 121-130.

[7] Fielder, D.S., and Bardsley, W.. “A preliminary study on the effects of salinity on growth and survival of mulloway Argyropsomus japonicus larvae and juveniles”, J. World Aquacult. Soc., 1999, 30: 380-387.

[8] Morgan, J.D. and Iwama, G.. “Effects of salinity on growth, metabolism and ion regulation in juvenile rainbow and steelhead trout ŽOncorhynchus mykiss and fall chinook salmon ŽOncorhynchus tshawytscha”, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 1991, 48: 2083-2094.

[9] Morgan, J.D. and Jensen, J.O., Iwama, G.K.. “Effects of salinity on aerobic metabolism and development of eggs and alevins of steelhead trout ŽOncorhynchus mykiss. and fall Chinook salmon ŽOncorhynchustshawytscha”, Can. J. Zool., 1992, 70: 1341-1346.

[10] Nordlie, F.G., Walsh, S.J., Haney, D.C. and Nordlie, T.F.. “The influence of ambient salinity on routine metabolism in the teleost, Cyprinodon _ariegatus Lac´ep`ede”, J. Fish Biol., 1991, 38: 115-122.

[11] Otto, R.G.. “Effects of salinity on the survival and growth of pre-smolt cho salmon ŽOncorhynchuskisutch’, J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can., 1971, 28: 343-349.

[12] Peterson, R.H., Martin-Robichaud, D.J., and Berge, A.. “Influence of temperature and salinity on length and yolk utilization of striped bass larvae”, Aquaculture Int., 1996, 4: 89-103.

[13] Smith, T.I.J., Denson, M.R., Heyward, L.D., Jenkins, W.E. and Carter, L.M.. “Salinity effects on early life stages of southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma”, J. World Aquaculture Soc., 1999, 30: 236-244.

[14] Swanson, C.. “Early development of milkfish: effects of salinity on embryonic and larval metabolism, yolk absorption and growth”, J. Fish Biol., 1996, 48: 405-421.

[15] Swanson, C.. “Interactive effects of salinity onmetabolic rate, activity, growth and osmo regulation in the euryhaline milkfish ŽChanos chanos”, J. Exp.Biol., 1998, 201:3355-3366.

[16] Tandler, A., Anav, F.A., and Chosniak, I.. “The effect of salinity on growth rate, survival and swim bladder inflation in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, larvae”, Aquaculture, 1995, 135: 343-353.

[17] Watanabe, W.O., Ellingson, L.J., Wicklund, R.I. and Olla, B.L.. “The effect of salinity on growth, food consumption and conversion in juvenile, monosexmale Florida red tilapia”, In: Pulin, R.S.V., Bhukaswan, T., Tonguthai, K., Maclean, J.L. ŽEds., The Second International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, ICLARM Conference Proceedings A5. Department of Fisheries, Bangkok, Thailand and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Philippines, 1988: 515-523.

[18] Hart, P.R., and Purser, G.J.. “Effects of salinity and temperature on eggs and yolk sac larvae of the greenback flounder ŽRhombosolea tapirina G¨unther, 1862”, Aquaculture, 1995, 136: 221-230.

[19] Imsland, A.K., Foss, A., Gunnarsson, S. et al.. “The interaction of temperature and salinity on growth and food conversion in juvenile turbot ŽScophthalmus maximu”,. Aquaculture, 2001, 198: 353-367.

[20] Parker, S.J. and Specker, J.L.. “Salinity and temperature effects on whole-animal thyroid hormones levels in larval and juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis”, Fish Physiol. Biochem., 1990, 8: 507-514.

[21] Peterson, M.S., Comiyns, B.H.H., Rakocinski, C.F. and Fulling, G.L.. “Does salinity affect growth in early juvenile Atlantic croaker, Micropogonias undulates ŽL?”, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 1999a , 238: 199-207.

[22] Miththapala Sriyanie. Tidal flats. Coastal ecosystem series. Columbo, Srilanka, IUCN, 2003, 5(3): 45.

[23] Al-Osairi, Y., Imberger, J. and Falconer, R. A.. “Mixing and flushing in the Persian Gulf (Arabian Gulf)”, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2011, 116.

[24] Neelamani, S. and Al-Osairi, Y.. “Probability Distribution of Seawater Turbidity around Boubyan Island in Kuwait”, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Springer, 2017a , 10: 417.

[25] https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-017-3200-0

[26] Neelamani, S., and Al-Osairi, Y.. “Probability Distribution, Statistical Characteristics and Power Potential of Seawater Velocity around Boubyan Island in Kuwait”, Jl. of Engineering Research, Kuwait University, 2019, 8(2): 143-166.

[27] Anderlini, V. C., Jacob,P. G. and Lee, J. W.. “Atlas of physical and chemical oceanographic characteristics of Kuwait Bay”, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR 704, Kuwait, 1982.

[28] Shunbo, F., Literathy, P., Ali, M., Samhan, O. and Jacob, P.. “Base line studies of oil and non-oil pollutants in the marine environment of Kuwait”, Phase II. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR 1946, Kuwait, 1986.

[29] Al-Yamani, F. Y. Bishop, J., Al-Rifaei, K., Ismail, W., Al-Yaqout, A., Al-Omran, L., Kwarteng, A., Al-Ghadban, A. and Sheppard, C.. “Assessment of the effects of the Shatt Al-Arab’s altered discharge regimes on the ecology of the northern Arabian Gulf”, Final Report. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR 5174, Kuwait, 1997a.

[30] Al-Yamani, F. Y., Durvasula, W.S., Ismail, R., Al-Rifaei, K., Al-Saeed,T., Al-Yaqout, A.,Al-Omran, L.. “Dynamic oceanography of the northwestern waters of the Arabian gulf:Ecological significance of the marine food web”, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR 5173, Kuwait, 1997b.

[31] Al-Yamani, F. Y., Bishop, J. M., Al-Rifaie, K., and Ismail, W.. “The effects of the river diversion, Mesopotamian Marsh drainage and restoration, and river damming on the marine environment of the northwestern Arabian Gulf”, Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 2007, 10 (3): 277-289

[32] DOI: 10.1080/14634980701512384

[33] Al-Yamani, F. Y., Bishop, J., Ramadhan, E., Al-Husaini, M., and Al-Ghadban, A. N.. “Oceanographic Atlas of Kuwait’s Waters”, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait, 2004.

[34] ISBN: 99906-41-19-6



DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/jms.v1i2.1000

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright © 2019 Neelamani Subramaniam, Yousef Al-Osairi


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.