Survey on Avian Malaria Parasites in Village Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Gombe Local Government Area, Gombe State, Nigeria

Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria)
Umar Isa IBRAHIM (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria)
Abdullahi Abubakar BIU (Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria)
Hassan Ismail MUSA (Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria)

Article ID: 4127

Abstract


Reports of avian malaria parasites in village chicken in Nigeria generally remain fragmentary and scarce. The study was conducted in Gombe Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria to investigate avian malaria parasites in Village Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and to determine the risk factors associated with the prevalence of the haemoparasites. A total of 530 village chickens blood samples were obtained from apparently healthy village chickens' brachial veins using sterile 2mls syringes and 23 gauge needles. Thin blood smear was made from each blood sample, and Giemsa stained and examined for the presence of avian haemoparasites under an electro-microscope. The result indicates 23.8% overall prevalence rate of three species of avian malaria parasites consisting of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon species.Plasmodium spp. has the highest prevalent rate of 13.0% followed by Haemoproteus spp. (5.1%), mixed Plasmodium spp. + Haemoproteus spp. (4.9%) infection and Leucocytozoon spp. (0.8%). Prevalence of avian malaria parasites was significantly higher in cocks compared to hens (p < 0.05), as well as higher in adults compared to growers chickens (p < 0.05). This study also showed a higher prevalence of avian malaria parasites during the rainy season compared to the dry season of the study period. It was concluded that haemoparasites of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon species that occur in both single and mixed infections are prevalent among village chickens that are apparently healthy in Gombe Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria.


Keywords


Avian Malaria ,Haemoproteus ,Leucocytozoon ,Plasmodium ,Village chickens

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30564/vsr.v3i2.4127

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